Sunday, February 16, 2020
Operations management - Essay Example It will be situated next to the road, railway and airport terminals. The design of the warehouse will also consider variability factor. This implies that it will be segmented into different sections such as shipping, reception, and stock and returned stock areas so as to store all the products (Kumar 174). The segmentation of the warehouse into different sectors will play as significant role in storing all types of tea brands, qualities supplied by the company. In conclusion, these Vs will help it to create a risk-free environment and safety storage for products, it will enable the staff to keep inventory of all the stock (Cannella and Ciancimino 175). Through this, the company will win the confidence of the clients and emerge as the best alternative regardless of the stiff competition from established companies like Nescafe, Lipton and Twinings, that enjoy a dominant share of this lucrative tea business. Cannella, S. and Ciancimino E. Ã¢â¬ËUp-to-date Supply Chain Management: the Coordinated.Ã¢â¬â¢ In Dangelmaier, W. et al. Advanced Manufacturing and Sustainable Logistics. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany. 2009.
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Sunday, February 2, 2020
Internet Technology, Marketing, and Security - Essay Example Social Media includes internet sites which facilitate the communication between individuals with the help of pictures, videos and writings. This essay will focus on the role of Social Media Marketing in the business profit generation. The researcher would consider the contribution of Social Media in marketing activities of Pepsi. In the later stage, the paper would consider several other empirical case studies and enumerate the importance of Social Media Marketing in future. The learnt from the essay would help to understand the importance of internet commercial segments (Bosari, 2012). Growing Popularity of Social Media Marketing CompuServe was the first Social Media networking site, established in United States in the 19th century. With the rise in literacy levels and the progress in technology, the proportion of internet users has increased significantly. Currently, famous social networking sites like, Youtube, are viewed by approximately 4 billion viewers per day. About 1.11 bill ion individuals across the world are regular users of Facebook and the viewership ratings for Twitter are about 500 million (Bosari, 2012). In the contemporary world, such sites are used for both commercial and non-commercial purposes. The corporate business firms often use Social Media for marketing their products to the consumers. In the theory of Customer Behavior Management, Customer Relationship Management plays a pivotal role. There are various reasons for which Social Media Marketing has become so popular in the modern days. There are: Social Media helps the companies to easily reach a wider base of customers across different marketplaces. The marketing activities through Social Media are relatively less costly that the other forms of traditional marketing methods. Online shopping has become a popular shopping destination in the modern world. The growing popularity of the digital marketplaces has forced the companies to set marketing strategies through internet media. Most of the consumers today are preoccupied with their daily activities. The proportion of television or radio viewers is much lesser than the proportion of the internet users. Thus, marketing consumer goods and services in the social networking sites helps the companies to reach out to a wider customer base, within the least possible time. Special Media marketing activities of the companies help to reduce their cost of marketing. The accumulated finances which are saved can be used by the companies for the purpose of growth and development. Social Media marketing is a more comprehensive, flexible and trendy form of marketing as opposed to the traditional methods (Bosari, 2012). Figure 1: Growing Popularity of Social Media Marketing (Source: Acra, 2012) The above bar graph shows that among all the different uses of internet media, Social Media is the most popular of them. Figure 2: Steps of Purchase (Source: Acra, 2012) The above graph shows the marketing stages. Figure 3: Social Fieldwork Cycle (Source: Acra, 2012) The above graph shows that social media marketing gives the maximum importance to Ã¢â¬ËconsumerismÃ¢â¬â¢. Advantages and Disadvantages There are various types of advantages and disadvantages of Social Media marketing. Advantages Social Media marketing activities help to enhance the business-to-customer relationships. It helps to engage the customers in
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Saturday, January 25, 2020
The Secularization Thesis It was Voltaire who said, If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him. Our theory agrees. (Stark and Bainbridge 1987, page 23). These words uttered by Stark and Bainbridge back in 1987 offer a glimpse into the longstanding and heated debated between the previously dominant, the Secularization Thesis and the completing Supply Side Theory, in academic sociology. Both theories have profound implications for the future of religion as a force in society. This essay will look at two articles published in the Sociology of Religion. Firstly, this essay will look at the two completing theories of the Secularization Thesis and the Supply Side. Secondly, a summary of the main points of Starks article entitled Secularization: RIPÃ¢â¬ in 1999, and Bruces 2001 response article entitled Christianity in Britain: RIP will be presented. Looking critically at both articles, this essay will conclude that Stark has won the debate for this around. The secularization thesis dates from when the theory of development was at the high of its influence. The theory in its modern incantation comes from the work of British sociologist Bruan Wilson in the 1960s. This twofold thesis was based on the observation that since the French and industrial revolutions in Europe in the 19th and 20 centuries have lead to a decline in religiosity. Firstly, this theory used Modernity as an explanation for the exit of Christianity from the world. Secondary, this theory, would have the same effects on all types of societies. It saw the extinction of religion from an enlightened world. On the other hand, Supply Side Theory came to challenge the secularization theory in the 1980s. This theory aims to explain religiosity. Proponents believe that there is a constant potential human demand for religious goods over time and between societies. They believe that as the supply of these goods fluctuates, these fluctuations explain the different levels of religio us vigour in different societies. Basically, the greater the religious diversity of a society, the better the religious vigour in that society. As previously noted the secularization thesis theory has come under aggressive attack. Rodney Stark, then teaching at the University of Washington in 1999 published his article Ã¢â¬Å"Secularization, R.I.P. in the Sociology of Religion journal. In this article, Stark clearly argues that the Secularisation theoy, is out-dated, old-fashioned and, as the title of his article highlights, the theory is dead and should be left to rest in peace Stark begins his article by noting, Ã¢â¬Å"[f]or nearly three centuries, social scientists and assorted western intellectuals have been promising the end of religionÃ¢â¬ . Stark makes five major claims about the thesis. Firstly, according to Stark, Modernity and modernisation is seen by theorists to be the cause of secularization. He notes that modernisation is a Ã¢â¬Å"long, gradual, relatively stable processÃ¢â¬ , and that if secularization is the result of modernisation, there will be a corresponding Ã¢â¬Å"long-term, gradual, and relatively constant trend of religious declineÃ¢â¬ . Secondly, to Stark, the focus of the predictions is on individual piety, especially belief, not institutional differentiation. He believes that some supporters of the secularization thesis have changed their focus and definition so they do not have to admit that their thesis is failed. In fact, Stark agrees religion institutions have less power and that religious ritual and symbols have become le ss common in public life. Starks third argument is that in all versions of the thesis the claim that Ã¢â¬Å"of all aspects of modernization, it is science that has the most deadly implications for religionÃ¢â¬ . Fourthly, Secularization is irreversible. Nevertheless, Stark disagrees with this by noting Andree Greeleys 1994 comment that after 70 years of Soviet Union militant efforts to achieve secularisation Ã¢â¬Å"St. Vladimir has routed Karl MarxÃ¢â¬ . Finally, Stark notes that the thesis applies globally. While the theorists have mostly focuses on Christianity, Ã¢â¬Å"belief in supernatural powersÃ¢â¬ is going to die out all over the world. Allah and Jehovah will both join each other as an Ã¢â¬Å"interesting historical memoryÃ¢â¬ . Secularization, R.I.P., then gets into specifics. To Stark the secularization thesis has failed to be an accurate prediction due to six main reasons. Firstly, it is a myth that there has been a decline in religious belief and participation because Ã¢â¬Å"there has been no demonstrable long-term decline in European religious participationÃ¢â¬ and in Europe Ã¢â¬Å"levels of subjective religiousness remain high.Ã¢â¬ Next, he argues that there has never been an Ã¢â¬Å"Age of FaithÃ¢â¬ . To Stark most Europeans did not attend church during the middle Ages and during the Renaissance. In fact, he highlights that many clergy were incompetent and that clergy were often absent from their parishes. In addition, while there were Ã¢â¬Å"periodic explosions of mass religious enthusiasmÃ¢â¬ , this offers even stronger evidence against involvement in organized religion. As a result, it can be said religious participation sometimes rises and sometimes declines. Thirdly, he argues that never was Europe really Christianized. Stark believes that although early Christianity was a Ã¢â¬Å"mass social movement in a highly competitive environment,Ã¢â¬ it lost its energy after it became the official religion of the Roman Empire. After Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity, there was never an attempt to convert the general population of Europe. This ties in to his fourth argument. Stark notes that while some theorists confirm there was no Ã¢â¬Å"Age of Faith, to them people still had high levels of religious belief, even if they did not go to church. Stark believes, using secular Iceland as an example, this still applies today, noting that while Iceland only has 2 percent church attendance, only 2.4 percent of the country are atheists. Fifthly, Ã¢â¬Å"if secularization is to show up anywhere it must show up among scientistsÃ¢â¬ . However, Stark discovers that many scientists report being religious. Evidence that there is a conflict between religion and science is m ostly fictional, and scientists are not Ã¢â¬Å"notably irreligiousÃ¢â¬ . Finally, Stark ends his rant about the fails of the Secularization theory by stating that evidence from Eastern Europe, Muslim nations and practitioners of Asian Ã¢â¬Å"folkÃ¢â¬ religions that modernity is compatible with religion. In 2001, Steven Bruce, Professor of Sociology at the University of Aberdeen, responded to Stark, with the appropriately titled Ã¢â¬Å"Christianity in Britain, R.I.P.Ã¢â¬ . Bruce disagrees with Starks hypothesis that the secularisation is simply a myth, based upon underestimating the religious vitality of the of the world today. Furthermore, Stark argued that this myth also exaggerated the religiosity of the past age of faith. In order to refute Starks claims, Bruce uses Britain as an example. Firstly, Bruce looks back at pre-industrial Britain. While knowledge of religion and its orthodoxy may have been limited, in order for there to be no golden age of faith we would have to be able accept nine Ã¢â¬Å"sociologically implausible assumptionsÃ¢â¬ . These range from wondering if the most powerful national institution had little or no impact upon the people. To why would people allow such a large amount of the wealth of Britain go to this institution which they did not support. To Br uce, religious beliefs then were still far more pervasive and influential than they are now. Next, Bruce looks at various indicators of the decline of Christianity in Britain over the last 150 years. Today, most Christian communities are in decline. Even if we just look to surveys done in 1951, 1990, and 2000 there is a clear trend of dramatic decline. Bruce goes as far to comment that using the long-term stable trend of the decline of Church membership and attendance, it is possible to make a statistical projection that by the 2030s the main Christian denominations will cease to exist. (Methodist). Bruce clearly believes that no amount of supply side revisionism will change the fact that Christianity in Britain is in serious trouble. Bruce then takes a critical look at supply-side theories of religion, which argue that demand is constant and that levels of religious vitality therefore depend on the supply, which is greatest when there is a free and competitive market for providers. He asks that considering Christianity has always valued collective acts of worship, and if there is a free marketplace for religion and no lack of shortage of Christian organisations. Surly this should be expressed in some way. Bruce notes that while the New Age movement might appear to demonstrate the existence of widespread informal religious belief, perhaps of an enduring need for religion, his examination of the extent, nature, and significance of that movement suggests otherwise, noting that they are Ã¢â¬Å"numerically all but irrelevantÃ¢â¬ . The memberships of these new organisations do not sufficiently make up for those lost from the more traditional denominations, which are in danger of dwindling past the demographic point o f no return.
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Friday, January 17, 2020
The square in China was a act of rebellion because the citizens stood up against Cherman Mao. Tone has to do with auditory (what you hear). Tone in writing represents things you hear from the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s writing. In Fahrenheit Four Hundred Fifty One Bradbury uses tone to show rebellion. Rebellion can be described as defiance of anything authority, control, or tradition. In this case Montag plans to rebel against control. Bradbury uses tone to characterize Faber and MontagÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion as futile because Faber does not want to help Montag with his plan. Ray Bradbury uses tone to explain how MontagÃ¢â¬â¢s plan becomes useless because Faber does not believe in his plan. Montag went to FaberÃ¢â¬â¢s house to tell him about how they should rebel against burning books Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Montag, you are looking at a coward. I saw the way things were going, a long time back. I said nothing. IÃ¢â¬â¢m one of the innocents who could have spoken up and out when no one would listen to the Ã¢â¬Ëguilty,Ã¢â¬â¢ but I did not speak and thus became guilty myself. And when finally they set the structure to burn the books, using the firemen, I grunted a few times and subsided, for by them. Now itÃ¢â¬â¢s too lateÃ¢â¬ , the tone sounds as if Faber does not believe that MontagÃ¢â¬â¢s plan becomes useless because the citizens in their world are accustom to not having books and not speaking up for what is right. Bradbury uses tone to display how MontagÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion becomes useless because he has no one who will rebel with him. This tone happens when Montag tries to tell Faber his plan. Ã¢â¬Å"Not if you start talking the sort of talk that might get me burnt for my trouble. The only way I could possibly listen to you would be is somehow the fireman structure itself could be burnt. Now if you suggest that we print extra books and arrange to have them hidden in firemenÃ¢â¬â¢s houses all over the country, so that seeds of suspicion would be sown among these arsonists, bravo IÃ¢â¬â¢d say! Ã¢â¬ (pg. 81) When Bradbury writes Ã¢â¬Å"Burnt for my troubleÃ¢â¬ , the tone sounds like Faber was not willing to risk his life for the rebellion against books being destroyed. Ray Bradbury uses tone to point out how MontagÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion will be futile because who he came to for help (Faber) does not even want to help him; he just points out the negative things of rebelling. This tone happens when Montag was telling Faber, the people that might be able to help. Ã¢â¬ CanÃ¢â¬â¢t trust people, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the dirty part you and I and who else will set the fires? Ã¢â¬ (pg. 83) When Bradbury writes Ã¢â¬Å"CanÃ¢â¬â¢t trust peopleÃ¢â¬ , the tone sounds like Faber believes citizens not being able to be trusted revels that the rebellion will be unsuccessful and should not be done. Ray Bradbury uses tone to show how Faber believes the rebellion will have an unsuccessful ending. In his writing he demonstrates how Faber states things that make MontagÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion very useless. He also shows how Faber shows unwillingness to risk his life just to save books and the idea in books. Also how Faber feels it is too late to try to change the burning of the books. Bradbury writes about rebellion because he does not believe in banning books and believes that people should be aware of all aspects of life. Meaning he revels through his characterÃ¢â¬â¢s development that the world he lives in needs transformation.
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Thursday, January 9, 2020
Observers of agriculture have noted the increase in popularity for organic products. However, is it possible for this growth in the organic industry to be sustainable and profitable? Some notable studies include, yield, price premium, demand, cost, etc. In this paper, organic to conventional agriculture will be investigated. Given that organic agriculture is still in its infancy, demand for organics will continue to grow despite for lower yield and higher premium cost. Additionally, since demand for organic agriculture will continue to grow, cost will be marginal compare to benefits. The following literature reviews will attempt to demonstrate and support this hypothesis. In a research article by Perez and Plattner, the industry for organic fruits and vegetables is expanding. The United States organic food sector grew by an estimated $2.5 billion in 2011, which half of the growth came from the fruit and vegetable category. Furthermore, organic fruit and berry sales grew at a faster pace compare to all organic crops and livestock commodities. However, despite this impressive growth, sales for organic fruits and berries range between 3 to 4% of total United States fruits and berries, implying room for future growth. (Perez et Pl, 2013) Greene wrote several articles that validates the increase demand for organics. Since 2002, when the national standards for organic production and processing was established, United States demand for organic produce has grown significantly.Show MoreRelatedEssay on Organic vs. Sustainable Agriculture1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrganic vs. Sustainable Agriculture Agriculture, to many is just an industry of farmers and cows. Most people canÃ¢â¬â¢t even come close to fathom just how essential the continuance of agriculture is to not just our well being, but our very lives. People of the United States have been spoiled, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve never had to worry about the grocery stores running empty because, even to this day, there hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been a problem growing enough to feed, not only the U.S. but a good part of the world too. The day thoughRead MoreAgriculture : A Global Environmental And Humanitarian Issue1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAgriculture uses the domestication and cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms to produce food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products to help sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture has existed for over the last 10,000 years and is credited into propelling our civilization into the modern cultures and technologies we see today. Without the ability to store and domesticate plants and a nimals it is unlikely that we would have been able to evolve beyond our hunting andRead MoreOrganic Agriculture, As Defined By The National Organic Standards Board1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOrganic Agriculture, as defined by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB): Ã¢â¬Å"Is an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain, and enhance ecological harmony.Ã¢â¬ Which is very fancily put for agriculture with as little man made input as possible trying to farm, as they perceive at least, the most beneficial to theRead MoreWhy Organic Farming Is Capable Of Sustaining The Global Population891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction Components 1. Discuss the Ã¢â¬Å"problem statement,Ã¢â¬ (what is the issue we are addressing?) - The Ã¢â¬Å"problem statementÃ¢â¬ to these three articles is to see if organic farming is capable of sustaining the global population by weighing the pros and cons of organic vs conventional farming. 2. Who are the authors and what are their qualifications? - First author, DiGregori has neither expertise or credential; he is a phD in Economics and does not have any experience dealing with agronomy nor didRead MoreOrganic vs. Conventional Farming: An Anthology757 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPollan is of the idea that the use of organic farming detoxifies food and the environment. This includes using traditional food distribution methods such as free-range chicken. Horrigan, L., Lawrence, R., Walker, P. (2002). How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture. Environmental Health Perspective . This article outlines problems that are associated with the current factory style animal agriculture. It points at ways of making the currentRead MoreSustainability Vs. Conventional Farming1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWalsh states that today, Agriculture takes up one third of the planet. (Walsh) Agriculture is the science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, growing, feeding, breeding, and raising livestock. (Dictionary) According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), when you add the word sustainable to agriculture, it means an integrated system of plant and animal production having a site-specific application. (Gold) The sales of organics are at an all time highRead MoreThe Effects Of Pesticides On Organic Farming1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfarmers noticed a decrease in soil quality and crop health due to the use of chemical fertilizers (Ã¢â¬Å"Pesticides in OrganicÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ 1). This drop in soil quality left the farmers no other c hoice but to cease the use of chemical fertilizers and begin implementing less harmful supplements in order to improve crop quality (Ã¢â¬Å"An Oral HistoryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ). This less invasive method of farming, otherwise known as organic farming, takes into account Ã¢â¬Å"the medium and long-term effect of agricultural interventionsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"What Are the EnvironmentalÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ )Read MoreApplying The Seven Keys And A Global Mindset1070 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesadopting all practices or good ideas to the business itself (Financial Times, 2015). Company X, will become a global company, illustrating culture through our organic goods and customer service. In this section the seven keys to a global mindset will be illustrated, to ensure proper etiquette in exporting meat. The first cultural key is Egalitarianism vs. Hierarchy. Considering the Asian investors are a hierarchical audience, our company will be more formal. Company X, will wear formal business clothes andRead MoreThe Bas ic Economics of Organic versus Non-Organic Foods 666 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesan area that has a fairly wide array of organic foods. There is a healthy mix of large supermarkets and small, independent grocers that sell organic foods. Using the Mayo Clinic as a reference, I have developed the following opinion on organic foods that takes into account the financial aspects as well as the health ramifications of eating or not eating organic foods. The basic economics of Organic versus Non-Organic foods are as follows: Non-Organic These foods are grown using fertilizersRead MoreGenetically Modified Organisms Are Better Than Organic Products1229 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbetter than organic products. Introduction I. Attention: What you had for lunch today? The DNA of that food? That was completely altered with. II. Audience connection/credibility: You have all heard the rumors about genetically modified food you are eating. Some of you may have been so moved by them that you started eating organic. Today, I am going to tell you the truth. III. Thematic Statement: (Preview of main points) Today, I am going to explain how organic products should
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Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3478 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? The human resource is the one of important resources for successful development of every company. Human resource management is a strategic management of an organizations people with the setting of environment. According to Sheppard (2003) it is considered as the most valuable assets that contribute to the achievement of the organizations goals and objectives. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Human Resources in a successful company" essay for you Create order The main or core focus of Human resource management is people. It is related with gathering, maintaining, improving and motivating the people in the right environment. It helps to consider ethical issues for the mutual procedure in case fairness, respect and transparency and such. It ensures a congenial environment to have the right person in the right place. Sims (2007) point out that human resource management considers the strategic fitness about the individuals and teams approach to develop the organizational effectiveness. Human resources are inimitable, appropriable, valuable and scarce, and no substitutable asset which can create competitive advantages. People and their skills is the one thing that competitor organizations cannot imitate. So, human resource management is firmly embedded in important business strategic levers to ensure continuing success. Human resource management is a blend of human capital management practices which is required for both corporate practices as well as image of the company. Human resource management is a distinct aspect to personnel management which is committed to gain competitive edge by creating strategic deployment a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques. HRM is essentially a business-oriented philosophy for managing people in pursuit of excellence HISTORY Tesco Plc is firmly established as the leading food retailer in the United Kingdom. It is estimated that one pound in every seven spent on food in the UK is spent at Tesco stores. Tesco is very popular in all over the world. Tescos market share is nearly twice that of its nearest rival and its dominant position has been exploited effective to grow its non food businesses to a point where they have significant scale and are highly profitable, earning meaningful returns on investment, in their own right. According to Tesco Plc (2010) today Tesco is an international business of significant scale and is active in 12 countries beyond the UK including Europe, Asia and North America. ÃâÃ In excess of 28 million customers are served by the 160,000 employees of the Groups international business which generates profits of Ã £700m on sales of Ã £13.8 billion. ÃâÃ As of 2008 over the international business has been developed to a point where half of Tescos selling space is out side of the UK. The Tesco brand was conceived when Cohen bought a shipment of tea from T E Stockwell and made the new labels using the first three letters of their name and adding C and O from his own. ÃâÃ Thus Tesco came into being in 1924. Funding Universe (2010) mention that Tesco progress is continuously growing day by day. In 1929 the first store was opened in Burnt Oak near Edgware in London and the company floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1947 as Tesco Stores (Holdings) Limited. Throughout the 1950s and 60s Tesco grew organically and through acquisitions to a point where it owned over 800 stores. Tesco founder jack Cohen was an enthusiastic advocate of price promotions and was amongst the first to embrace the Green Shield Stamp trading stamps scheme which offer inducements for shoppers to shop at his stores in 1963 and became one of its biggest clients TASK-1 INVSTIGATE HOW HRM CONTRIBUTES TO THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES IDENITFY AND EXPLAIN ANY THREE KEY HRM ACITIVITIES OF THE ORGANISATION YOU WORK FOR AS AN HR DIRECTOR HR management is composed of several groups of interlinked activities taking place within the context of the organisation. Organisational effectiveness depends on having the right people in the right jobs at the right time to meet rapidly changing organisational requirements. Right people can be obtained by performing the role of human resource function, in this report I am going to discuss three HRM activities which are very important in any large organisation or company. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance management is the means through which managers ensure that employeeÃâÃ ¡ÃâÃ ¦s activities and outputs are congruent with the organizational goals. Some aspects of performance can be measured through performance appraisal. It is the process through which an organization gets information on how well an employee is doing his or her job. According to Bandit and Haines (2004) performance management has strategic, administrative and developmental purposes. It is very important in Tesco Plc .There are a few approaches to measuring performance. The comparative approach requires the rather to compare an individualÃâÃ ¡ÃâÃ ¦s performance with that of others. This approach usually uses some overall assessment of an individualÃâÃ ¡ÃâÃ ¦s performance or worth and seeks to develop some ranking of the individuals within a work group. Three techniques fall under the comparative approach: ranking, forced distribution, and paired comparison. RECRUITMENT When a person plays a role of Hr Director it is really very keen factor in the human resource management. Hrmguides (2010) claim that recruitment is the process of locate manpower to meet job requirement and job specifications, there are many factors affecting recruitment process the working conditions, salary and benefit packages , compensation, incentives , size of the organization, employment condition in the community where the organization is located. For example as a HR director of Tesco Plc I have be a very keen in selection and recruitment process because it is very important for me to select and recruit a right candidate for my organisation if I am fail to do this then we cannot achieve our goal or objective. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT HRM contribute to the achievement of organisation objectives first of all training and development is really very important for achieving goal or objective of Tesco s. As a manager of Tescos performance appraisals not only assist in determining compensation and benefits, but they are also instrumental in identifying ways to help individuals improve their current positions and prepare for future opportunities. According to Redman and Wilkinson (2004) as the structure of organizations continues to change through or expansion the need for training and development programs continues to grow. Improving or obtaining new skills is part of another area of HRM, known as training and development. Kelly (2008) claim that each of the training methods mentioned has benefits to the individual as well as to the organization. Some of the benefits are reducing the learning time for new hires, teaching employees how to use new or updated technology, decreasing the number and cost of accidents becaus e employees know how to operate a machine properly, providing better customer service, improving quality and quantity of productivity, and obtaining management involvement in the training process. When managers go through the training, they are showing others that they are taking the goals of training seriously and are committed to the importance of human resource development. 1.2 EXPLAIN HOW THE THREE KEY HRM ACITVITIES WERE ACHIEVED THROUGH EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF HR RESOURCES According to Torrington, Hall and Taylor (2008) there is a big amount of frustration and dissatisfaction with currently method of performance management. This approach is based on ratings scales, goal, objective and other performance indicators. Its very effective in organization and therefore as a HR director I have to encourage the employees who are working with my organization I have to talk with them informally and with the help of this employee knew about their performance they knew about their weakness and strengths. For example in Tesco Plc there are many employees from different region work together and from them every year I have to give some of them who shows their honesty, hard work and punctuality as a HR director of Tesco I have to give them honour and award every year for their contribution. Recruitment has big impact in my organization because if as HR Director I failed to get a right candidate for my organization then it will be trouble for me and for my organiza tion in future. So with the help of recruitment I can find a right employee for my organization. according to Eldis (2010) we have to plan our recruiting to ensure successful candidate selection for example as HR Director we should go through candidate resume, interview, personality in other hand in my organization employee have to serve the customer on till so I have to arrange some computer test because when customer come on counter with their goods they can serve them easily. Furthermore when the time of selection I have to use not traditional style of selection but I have to write scenarios, brief role plays, and give an employee a task to solve a problem which will be helpful for the employee when he actually work with the organization. Training and development programs are introduced to organizations to improve the knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees through effective management. In addition, development and training programs are essential for an organization to s uccessfully train and educate their employees. Strategic human resource (2010) mention that the quality and variety of the training companies provide is a key for motivation. Reasons for training range from new-hire training about your operation to introducing a new concept to a workgroup. Quality training and development programs are essential in keeping the staff motivated about learning new concepts and keeping the department profitable. COMPARE AND CONTRAST ANY TWO HRM MODELS WHICH EXIST INTHE ORGANISATION YOU WORK FOR AS AN HR DIRECTOR GUEST MODEL This model is has six dimension of analysis for example HRM strategy , HRM practices, HRM outcomes, behaviour outcomes, performance outcomes and finally financial outcomes. Bandit and Haines (2004) mention that this model is very authoritarian in the sense that it is rely upon the assumption that HRM is different from traditional personnel management. This model is also very idealistic, implicitly the belief that fundamental element of the HRM approach, such as commitment have a direct relationship with business outcomes. On other hand Guest model has acknowledge that the concept of commitments is not as good as the relationship between commitment and high performance is. In this model the employee relationship is view as one between the individual and the organisation. So some extent it is helpful for Tesco Plc and some extent it is not. HARVARD MODEL For Tesco Plc this one is suitable model of human resource management. The Harvard model is strongly influenced by behavioural research and theory and stands in the tradition of human relations. Kleynhans (2005) this is a humanistic and anti authoritarian viewpoint which holds that employees will only adopt an organisations objectives if they wish to. They will not demonstrate enthusiastic and commitment if they are forced to comply. Accordingly, although strategic decisions making is challenged through top manager there is an emphasis on participation throughout the organisation they argue that the well-being of employees must be considered separately and distinctly from that of the organisation. Employers can be affected economically, physically or psychologically by HR policies. But manager have different values and will weight those consequences differently according to those values. Some will focus on the organisation at the expense of workers whereas others will regard employ ees as having legitimate claims to fair treatment. TASK-2 EXAMINE HR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS 2.1 IDENTIFY AND EXPLAIN THREE HR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS IN YOUR ORGANISATION EQUAL OPPRTUNITIES Its vital that we avoid discriminating when we come to recruit staff. Not only is it against the law but by putting every applicant on an equal footing we stand more chance of getting an employee who is perfect for the job. As the owner of a small business, we are liable for any discriminatory action brought about by our employees. According to Hendry (2005) it is against the law to discriminate against someone based on their sex, sexual orientation, marriage status, race, colour, nationality, ethnic origin, religion, or because of a disability, pregnancy or being part of a trade union. Its also illegal to discriminate against part-time workers. When we welcome to interview candidates then certain questions are strictly banned. We cant ask, either directly or indirectly, whether someone is married, gay or plans to have children. Hrmbusiness (2010) believe that to encourage our status as a fair employer we can take steps to become an equal opportunities employer. We can implement an equal opportunities policy into our business, set an action plan with targets, provide training for staff, review our recruitment process on a regular basis, draw up justifiable job criteria, offer pre-employment training and consider offering flexible working hours. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL According to Sims (2007) performance Appraisal or evaluation is the HRM method used to determine the extent on which the employees are performing the job effectively. Performance appraisal should also be viewed as a system of highly interactive processes which involve personnel at all levels in differing degrees in determining job expectations, writing job descriptions, selecting relevant appraisal criteria, developing assessment tools and procedures, and collecting interpreting, and reporting results. ÃâÃ Performance appraisal can be either Informal, when supervisors think about how well the employees are doing and Formal, when there is a system set up by the organization to regularly and systematically evaluate employee performance. MOTIVATION AND MAINTENENCE The motivation induces to action work. Through work the person is capable to satisfy the material requirements. Motivation is very important in Tesco plc because as HR Director I have to motivate employees to work hard and give their best. Green (2002) opines that the satisfaction of the material requirements also is the basic motivation. There is a set various ways and motivation theories which can be divided into two basic groups: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The basic of ideas for workers is compensation reception for over norm the performed work. It is a good way of improvement of a spirit and working capacity in group. As housekeeping that is group work it is impossible to perform over norm without excellent work in group. It also will be the basic stimulus for work training in group. But as well as any ways it has the minuses. 2.2 CRITICALLY EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE HR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS IN MEETING THE ORGANISAITONAL OBJECTIVES. Equal opportunities play a big role in Human Resource Management its effectiveness is very vital in all aspect of operations in an organization. Every organization always tried to give equal opportunities to their staff in terms of all factors which are irrelevant to their abilities. But there are so many obstacles as a HR Director of Tesco Plc I have to ensure equity and access, Tesco is committed to policy of selection of the employee and appointment of the employee basis of their past experience, qualification, confidence. Business balls (2010) point out that Sometime we are failing to achieve our objective for example in Tesco when we recruit so many employees in current year but later on when there is a matter of equal opportunities it include wider range of inequalities based on disabilities, race, sex, age, marital status, sexual orientation, nationality and social class which are critical and accurate exploration of equal opportunities. On the other hand motivation is im portant for Tesco Plc but on some reasons the basic minus is accustoming of people to awards, they start them to perceive as due. Absence of awards can lead to conflicts. The basic way of the decision of this problem, increase of awards as under our conditions it economically is not favourably necessary to think over system of increase of awards without the big financial expenses. Lastly performance has also many disadvantages for example If not done appropriately, can be a negative experience. Are very time consuming, especially for a manager with many employees. Are based on human assessment and are subject to rater errors and biases. If not done right can be a complete waste of time. Can be stressful for all involved. Finally a performance appraisal is only as good as the performance management is part of.ÃâÃ If an organization merely does performance appraisals for the sake of doing them, they are wasting their time.ÃâÃ But if they strategically in corporate performance management into their strategic plan to implement business goals they will provide a process to accomplish those goals TASK-3 ANALYSIS ON HOW THE HR PERFORMANCE CAN BE ENHANCED IN THE ORGANIZATION 3.1 CRITICALLY REVIEW HOW HR PERFORMANCE IN YOUR ORGANISATION IS CURRENTLY INDICATED AND MONITERED HR performance is very valuable source in organization it is also known as key success indicators and it is also very important to achieve organizational goals. Key performance indicators are measurements that reveal the critical success of factors of an organization. All key factors are different from each other and it depends upon the organization. For example in Tesco Plc if our key performance is customer service any customer coming in our organisation we have to serve and help them as soon as possible and sort it out their problem, because if we ignore this factor and didnt give customer response or any delay then customer can change the company and finally our business lose money. Bandit and Haines (2004) states that key factors always reproduce organizational goals, so first of all we have to set a target or goal for organization and think about how we achieve or accomplish that particular goal. In my organization HR performance monitored in so many ways but I want to dis cuss in this assignment some of these, as a HR director I arranged meeting of staff member I got effective feedback on the staff members performance throughout the review period. For example in Tesco Plc when we analyse monthly performance of employees and we sort it out so many higher performance throughout the month and we decide this performance in our fixed parameters of the organization. Swanson and Holton (2009) mention that recruitment, training and development of employees quality and also providing best working conditions with appropriate increase opportunities has been convene with high standards. Separately as of these functions, being obedient with rules and regulations of the country and keeping a way of the best performing employees and on condition that them with opportunities for growth and maintain them for the best results has been approved out methodically. But in Tesco Plc sometimes there were many bad experiences about employees which are destructive for Tesc o. 3.2 SUGGEST WAYS ON HOW TO IMPROVE THE INDICATE AND MONITORING PROCESS Monitoring pays attention at the aim improving the projects design and functionality of an operation. According to Kelly (2008) the creation of customer satisfaction has to be met by organizations by proving adequate customer service. Customer satisfaction can principally be met through provision of products or service requested on acceptable specification, cost and timing, because of this Tesco has its own slogan that every little helps. The utilization intensity of resources serves as one monitor of performance as well as the value of productivity output per employee. In performance management and management control two measures that can be exercised can be the actual behaviour of the system compared with requested standards Hendry (2005) opines that HR planning is an effective method to understand and estimation the employee requirements. It is also an opportunity to effectively equipment the changes in the organisation with increase of decrease in need of employees. Maintain of efficient staff and new recruitment becomes much easy with the understanding of the requirements and forecasting of future needs. The over indication activities are directly related with the various factors in an organisation similar to culture, workforce development, values and active income structure. HR planning involves various factors like Job Category, Selection Method, Analysis of collated data etc. Future desires are forecasted depending on the existing revenue ratio and a detailed study into the reason for the same. This helps in the recruitment which follows by analysing the new applicant and extent them across the existing situations. Forecasted result helps enhanced understanding of the desires and avoids employment of excess staff. CONCLUSION Human resource management is the creation of the relation of the overall strategic aim of the organization and the human resource strategy and implementation. Initially, in this process the employee and organization are managed in such a way that aim of the business strategy and then create human resource management such as recruitment, selection, reward, compensation, training and incentives? With the help of human resource management approach that involves commitment, ideas of culture, and mission. In this report I have mentioned HRM models; I compared two models of HRM as a director of Tesco Plc. I have also mentioned HR planning methods and how to improve the monitoring process. Majority organization adopts formal human resource management. The HR dept entail in every decision of the organisation because it manages the most important factor in an organisation which is Human Resource. The various analyses approved out on the different activities of all-purpose HR dept and that o f Tescos explain that it has been highly successful in employ the right activities helping them maintain their position in the market.
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Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Each day, billions of people throughout the world affirm their commitment to a specific idea; to be part of a society. While this social contract is often overlooked by most citizens, their agreement to it nevertheless has far-reaching consequences. Being a member of society entails relinquishing self-autonomy to a higher authority, whose aim should be to promote the overall good of the populace. While making this decision to become part of a commonwealth is usually performed without explicit deliberation, there is a common consensus amongst philosophers that something unique to the human experience is the driving force behind this decision. Contained within this something are highly contested points of debate amongst both past andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Aquinas believed that God allowed the realization of natural laws to be derived from eternal laws through the rationality that He gave His creations. Aquinas stated that Ã¢â¬Å"the natural law is promulgated by God when he imp lants it in the minds of human beings so that they know it by nature,Ã¢â¬ (Aquinas, page 16). Aquinas devised that all laws fell into specific categories that were ordered relative to their distance from GodÃ¢â¬â¢s eternal law. The importance of natural law for Aquinas was found within what it provided to humanity; the guidance from God on what should be considered good or evil. Quoting Romans 2:14, Aquinas noted that Ã¢â¬Å"although they do not have the written law, they have a natural law, whereby each of them understands and is conscious of good and evil,Ã¢â¬ (Aquinas, page 18). This knowledge was twofold according to Aquinas; it provided mankind with the general guidance that God wanted us to follow (the primary percepts) and allowed for the creation of more specific human law (the secondary precepts). He stated Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦human reason needs to advance from the precepts of the natural law, as general and indemonstrable first principles, to matters that are to be more particularly regulated,Ã¢â¬ (Aquinas, page 19). Thus, Aquinas saw natural law as the product of utilizing reason to decipher GodÃ¢â¬â¢s commands from eternal law, which in turnShow MoreRelatedSocial Contract Theory: Natural Rights and Personhood Within Democracy 1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPersonhood is a central issue within ethics and natural rights debates. For any theory of ethics or system of declaring natural rights which purports how man should be treated and/or to what rights he is so entitled must begin with what Ã¢â¬ËmanÃ¢â¬â¢ is. There is no doubt man has an inherent value that entities such as flies and trees lack. This value does not come from mere physical form, but from what comprises personhood; because these things can be separated from our physical form they can fail to beRead MoreLiberal Ideas Of Equality And The Right Of Law1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLiberal ideas of equality and the right of law may be normative to this current epoch but these ideas w ere considered radical at their time (Fielding et al. 2009, p. 127). Rising to prominence during the 18th century Enlightenment, liberal ideas has roots in the period of the protestant reformation in the 16th century, with ideas of increased importance and faith in the individual and his rationality in opposition to the central authority of the Catholic Church (Fielding et al., 2009, p. 106).Read MoreEssay on Modern Western Political Thought1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis born free, and everywhere he is in chains.Ã¢â¬ with this now famous quotation Jean- Jacque Rousseau begins his work The Social Contract. 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